• This blended course is being developed by Mrs Leena Phadke.

    Health & welbeing of a human being depends on the interaction between the human host, its environment & the flora of the host. If the immunity of the host is lowered down due to any reason, the chance that the pathogen may enter & establish itself in the host will increase. Host-Pathogen interaction is always dynamic in nature. Both the systems try & adapt to the presence of the other component & try to control the other component to a certain extent. The outcome of this race between the host & pathogen is either complete elimination of the pathogen or establishment of a carrier status of the host or display of the symptoms of a specific infection.  

  • When an atom is bombarded with particle that possesses sufficient energy to knock out an electron ionisation takes place. During the ionization process one or more electrons are expelled from the sample. Measurement of the kinetic energy of these expelled electrons can provide qualitative and quantitative information about the sample.


    Electron spectroscopy comprises a group of analytical methods that measure the kinetic energy of expelled electrons after initial bombardment of the analyte with X rays, ultraviolet radiation, ions, or electrons.